• October 28, 2023

Decolonization of British Colonies

5 British Colonies

Over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, England gained large colonies in North America and further south in what is now known as the Caribbean Islands. English explorers also established trading settlements in India and Africa.

By the 1950s, many of these British colonies were pushing for independence. Some had fought in the Second World War, while others had suffered from racism and oppressive government policies.

Canada

The modern nation of Canada was established as a self-governing colony in the mid-19th century, though it retains ties to the British monarchy. It is comprised of ten provinces and three territories.

In the 1700s, English traders founded the Hudson’s Bay Company to gain trading rights for regions drained by rivers into the Hudson Bay. The company and its European and African employees cemented alliances with First Nations in the Maritime region, such as the Haudenosaunee (the Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca).

Britain emerged as a global hegemon in the 19th century, expanding its influence through trade concessions and territorial acquisitions in Asia and Africa. The loss of India to independence in 1947 marked the decline of Britain as a world power. However, it continues to control parts of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and its former colonies remain a vital component of its economy.

Australia

Australia’s unique geography and long isolation has had a major influence on its culture, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples providing significant cultural input. This has influenced the development of a distinctive Australian identity based on Western traditions, such as democracy, Westminster government and parliamentarianism and American constitutionalist and federalist traditions.

At its peak, the British Empire ruled over a quarter of the world’s population. It was characterised by two broad types of colonisation: settler colonies, where settlers established institutions and forms of government that mirrored those in England; and economic colonialism, where the British exploited indigenous natural resources and labour.

The National Archives has extensive holdings of records from the British colonies in Australia, New Zealand and India. These are contained in a variety of series, including correspondence, PCAP (printed papers from appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council) and HCA.

New Zealand

Located far from other major countries, New Zealand had a strong British culture. Its European immigrants brought Western religions and English language, influencing Maori culture. They also introduced their farming techniques and agricultural food products, creating a distinct Pakeha or New Zealand European culture.

The country is a member of the Commonwealth, an association of former British colonies that promotes democracy and human rights. It has its own parliament and government and is a constitutional monarchy.

The British Empire ruled over a quarter of the world’s population at its peak. Its colonisation was based on two main strategies: colonisation through settlement and economic exploitation. The first involved overtaking and taking control of the indigenous people, while the second focused on exploiting the native natural resources and labour.

India

Britain’s colonial empire was vast, reaching from the Atlantic islands of Bermuda and Gibraltar to Africa, India, Asia and Australia. It encompassed a quarter of the world’s population at its height in 1922.

These colonial holdings were governed by a governor acting on behalf of the Crown and with wide powers of discretion. Administrative records relating to these colonies are often held by The National Archives.

The emergence of the British Empire as a global hegemon was largely due to its economic control of trade, resources and sea lanes – a system described as ‘Pax Britannica’. However, the end of World War Two transformed global politics and prompted a decline in imperialism. Ultimately most of the former British colonies attained independence in the 1950s.

Africa

The second-largest continent in the world and a place of immense cultural diversity, Africa was colonised by Britain in the late 19th century. The “scramble for Africa” was driven by trade and resource concessions, as well as a desire to compete with Germany’s expanding empire in Asia.

Although some former British colonies are now independent, many retain strong cultural connections with their past colonial era. This is evident in places like the quaint hill station of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia which is still home to numerous British-era buildings, and Darjeeling, which is famous for its tea production. Aside from being a popular tourist destination, these areas are also important sources of history and culture. This is especially true of the former British colonies in Africa.

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  • October 23, 2023

Cattle breed with natural polled trait and high meat/milk quality

The British White

British White cattle are naturally polled and can be recognised by black or red points on the muzzle, feet and ears. This is a herding breed that is both hardy and thrifty.

They are able to efficiently convert grass into premium marbled beef with low inputs. The cows are excellent mothers and produce very rich milk.

Origin

The British White is a naturally polled (hornless) large dual purpose breed of cattle with the ability to milk. It is a pure breed, with an uninterrupted lineage going back to the ancient indigenous wild horned white cattle of England and Wales.

The breed was developed around the seventeenth century by crossing white polled cattle from Whalley Abbey in Lancashire with herds of ‘wild’ hornless cattle that roamed north-east England. This herd is credited with being the fountainhead of the breed. The herd dispersed to Gisburne and Somerford before Mary Assheton took the breed to Norfolk at Gunton Park.

The breed is docile, hardy and very fertile with a good carrying capacity for calves. The cows have well set, tight udders with small black teats. The skin is pink with dark pigmentation, this eliminating problems of sunburn and eye disease. The breed is also very prepotent, with a high percentage of twins per herd. The British White is one of the few breeds in the world to have this natural ability.

Characteristics

British whites are large naturally polled dual purpose cattle with excellent beef and milking qualities. They are docile and very easy to handle. They are very hardy and have a very good ability to survive harsh or extreme conditions, such as hot or cold climates.

They are top notch producers of high quality beef which is very tender and highly marbled with a low fat content. This meets today’s consumer demands with the weight consciousness and move toward low cholesterol content.

They are known for their heat tolerance and frequently sit or lie in the sun while other breeds seek a shady spot. They are also able to graze rough vegetation such as rushes, nettles and heather as well as browse shrubs and trees. They are healthy with resistance to tuberculosis, viral pneumonia and a very low incidence of arthritis and calving difficulties. Their strong black hooves hold their shape and are housed stock seldom need hoof paring.

Breeding

The British White is a dual purpose cattle breed, large naturally polled and known for their fertility, milkiness and calving ease. It is also a good meat breed, producing lean meat of high quality with excellent texture and flavour.

It is a highly adaptable breed, and a good choice for mixed herds. The breed’s ability to graze well enables it to use feed efficiently and reduce the amount of concentrates required.

Until recently the British White was one of the rare breeds, but as interest in the breed has grown so the numbers have strengthened and it no longer falls into the RBST category of minority breeds. The breed has a very healthy genetic history and shows great resistance to tuberculosis and viral pneumonia. They have a very high heat tolerance and will often sit or lie down to rest during the hottest weather. This is a good trait for keeping them in good health during times of drought.

Health

In England and Wales, the list of write-in response options in equality questions on government services includes ‘White’. This category does not represent how everyone identifies themselves, and people can also select ‘Other’ or write in their own group name.

Ethnic minority groups have young age structures in comparison to the wider population, reflecting historic migration patterns. However, their health outcomes deteriorate with age and this is compounded by ongoing restrictions from opportunities that structural racism can create.

Inequalities in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at older ages, as measured by the GP Patient Survey, are higher for most minority ethnic groups than for White British. This may be related to a combination of factors, including the likelihood that people from these groups have poor experiences of primary care and less support from local services to manage long-term conditions, as well as living in more socially deprived neighbourhoods. This is exacerbated by a lack of confidence in managing their own health, particularly for men.

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  • October 16, 2023

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  • October 15, 2023

British 8th Army Uniform: Description and Variations

The British 8th Army Uniform

The British 8th army uniform was the barracks and walking-around dress for British soldiers. It was made of khaki tropical material, with a large first aid field dressing pocket on one sleeve and epaulettes in regimental colors in ceremonial uniform and a DPM bush hat in non-ceremonial wear.

Line infantry full dress is a scarlet tunic of the pre-1914 type worn by colonels and above. It is a key order of dress and the most elaborate of the British orders.

Khaki Drill Shirt and Shorts

This light tan coloured cotton drill was well suited to tropical climes and was worn by troops in North Africa, The Middle East and the Mediterranean Theatres of Operations. It was also used as barracks and walking around dress.

The shirt and shorts were usually adorned with the regimental coloured flash worn on the epaulettes. The shirt could be tucked into the trousers with the sleeves rolled up.

The 8th Army was a diverse formation made up of divisions from throughout the British Empire including Australia, New Zealand and India. It fought in the Western Desert Campaign to Alamein and later, in conjunction with 1st Army, through Italy and the Balkans to Austria.

Black Leather Boots

The black leather boots worn by the british 8th army were typically sand or khaki in color although there are examples of them appearing super desaturated green due to dyes being mixed, miss dyes etc. The boots were worn with hose tops, socks and puttees.

This figure is a senior non-commissioned officer (SNCO) who is kneeling and looking towards his commander for instructions. He wears 1937 pattern webbing and is lightly equipped with a Lee Enfield SMLE rifle and a Thompson machine carbine with drum magazine. His hat is the standard peaked Field Service or FS cap and he has a pistol case but no ammunition pouch.

Khaki Grenadier Shirt

The khaki grenadier shirt is worn by the british 8th army uniform. It consists of a khaki jacket, shirt and tie with either a khaki skirt or trousers. Coloured trousers are worn by some units, including crimson by the King’s Royal Hussars and dark green by the Royal Irish Regiment. The hat is either a khaki bush hat or a field service cap.

It is also paired with the standard khaki drill pants and black leather boots. The other ranks wore a khaki belt with epaulettes. In combat the soldier wore a steel helmet and in non-combat wear a peaked service cap.

Khaki Grenadier Jacket

This is the standard service dress worn for ceremonial occasions and by certain regiments and corps. It comprises a khaki jacket, shirt and tie with trousers. It is typically worn with a black waist belt bearing a plate buckle displaying the unit’s badge for ceremonial attire and a plain khaki one for non-ceremonial wear.

This uniform was introduced in World War II as a practical combat garment, and served for many years before it was replaced in 2011 by the current No. 8 Dress which is based on the MTP windproof smock, lightweight jacket and trousers with a range of ancillaries.

Khaki Grenadier Pants

During World War Two the 8th Army fought throughout the Western Desert campaigns culminating in victory at Alamein under Montgomery and subsequently pursued the retreat of the Axis forces across Italy.

The battledress uniform was ideally suited for the temperate climes of Europe and the United Kingdom but was found to be too heavy for summertime operations and the sunnier climates of Southern Europe and Africa. The new PCS-CU combat uniform, which replaced the battledress, is lighter and more flexible.

Soldiers carried spare battle dress uniforms, so that they could send their soiled ones to be laundered or repaired and then wear their ‘best’ one for parades and other ceremonial duties. They wore a plain khaki belt when in non-ceremonial uniform.

Khaki Grenadier Helmet

In addition to the khaki drill uniform there was also a jungle green uniform for tropical areas which was worn when out of the line of fire. Generally this consisted of trousers, parka and bush hat.

The formation badge was a Crusader’s shield as 8th Army was known as the Crusader Corps. The same design was used for a peaked SD cap when out of uniform.

Often these helmets were painted in a sun-bleached colour. Depending on the shade this could vary from sand to other hues of khaki brown or even super desaturated green. This is a very nice example of a rare original named helmet of the Grenadier Guards with unit flashes.

Khaki Grenadier Cap

The British Army wore khaki uniforms for both working (combat) and ceremonial dress. Exceptions are those regiments that wear what is called a tribal head dress – the Tam O’Shanter of Scottish regiments, the Caubeen of Irish regiments and the Bearskin of the Guards regiments.

Such regiments continue to wear their cap badge on the beret worn in No. 8 Dress; the badge is positioned above the left eye where a beret or caubeen is worn. A scarce original officer’s service visor cap in khaki with a wide leather chin strap and General service buttons. Inner lining shows some slight hair grease markings but otherwise in excellent condition.

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  • October 14, 2023

Immerse Yourself in the Thrills of Live Football with 축구중계

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  • October 14, 2023

The Tradition and Legacy of the British Grenadiers.

The British Grenadiers

Throughout the years since 1945 the Regiment has seen much action, from the retreat from Dunkirk to North Africa and Italy. Grenadier Battalions fought in the Division commanded by Major General, later Field Marshal, Montgomery.

The Band has paraded for 15 monarchs over 325 years, raising morale in the darkest hours of the Second World War and bringing joy to key historic occasions like the coronation of our present Queen.

Origins

It’s a tune that sends shivers up the spines of anglophiles the world over, the Regimental Quick March of the Grenadier Guards and all other Fusilier units. It dates back to the 17th Century, originally a simple ditty known as “The Grenadeer’s March” and later adapted with lyrics that include allusions to the Battle of Waterloo.

Handpicked for their size and strength, grenadiers were the elite soldiers of the 18th Century. They smashed through walls, defended sieges and generally took on whatever obstacles stood in their way. They would often lob primitive grenades to clear the way for the rest of the regiment.

By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, grenadier companies were phased out at battalion level but continued at divisional level. For example, grenadiers made up one of the 13 companies in the 1st Foot Guards – now known as the Coldstream Guards – and continued to wear bearskin caps for full dress.

Equipment

In a time before modern self contained bombs, grenades were iron balls filled with gun powder that would explode if thrown into a line of enemy troops. To throw them, a soldier had to free his hands from the grip on his musket. This was not easy with a large brimmed cap on, so the grenade was usually slung crossways over the shoulder in a pouch. This required a new headdress and that is how the mitre cap came to be worn by grenadiers.

As warfare changed from static wars of position dominated by sieges to fluid wars of manoeuvre, the grenade became obsolete. Nevertheless, grenadier companies continued to exist as the crack companies of their regiments. They wore distinctive headdress and took the right of the line on parade.

These men were tall, strong and brave and they were still seen as elite soldiers within their military force. They were paid more and ranked higher than the general infantry.

Training

In the 1700s, grenadiers were elite soldiers selected out of regular infantry battalions. They were tall, strong men who wore sombreros and carried pouches of iron balls with gun powder on them, lit by fuses, that they could throw or roll into enemy lines.

By the time of the French and Indian War, one of 13 companies in a British foot battalion was made up of grenadiers. They served from Canada to the Ohio River Valley and from the Caribbean to the Continent and saw action in nearly every major campaign of the period.

Their name lives on today in the regimental quick march The British Grenadiers, which dates back to the seventeenth century. It’s a tribute to a tradition tested on the battlegrounds of British history and as valid today as it was at First Ypres, Waterloo, Corunna and the retreat from Dunkirk. The regiment has proved that an unshrinking belief in strong traditional values does not prevent it from embracing change.

Combat

In modern terms, specialist grenade-launching units are now indistinguishable from other infantry. Despite this, some regiments still use the name grenadier and some have even retained the tune to The British Grenadiers (with lyrics).

By the seventeenth century grenadiers had ditched their brimmed hats and adopted caps similar to those worn by infantry. They were also issued with grenades and equipped with flintlock muskets. A special brass’match case’ was attached to the shoulder belt which contained slow matches for lighting grenade fuses.

By the Napoleonic Wars grenadier companies of line infantry had acquired a bearskin cap for their full dress uniform. This was associated with their role in the defeat of the French Imperial Guard at Waterloo. Today, the 1st Battalion carries on the tradition with a bearskin cap for parade dress, and the grenadier company of the Foot Guards still wears one in combat. This is a unit that has had a busy recent history with two tours to Northern Ireland and three deployments to Afghanistan.

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  • October 14, 2023

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  • October 12, 2023

Sex, Scandal, and Revenge: A Very British Scandal

A Very British Scandal

One of Britain’s biggest scandals is the subject of a new BBC mini-series starring Claire Foy. The series, called A Very British Scandal, explores Margaret Campbell and her tumultuous relationship with Ian Campbell, Duke of Argyll.

The Crown alum Foy delivers a fine performance as the Duchess of Argyll. The show explores their high-profile divorce case that triggered a tabloid frenzy.

Duchess of Argyll

A new three-part BBC miniseries stars Claire Foy as Margaret Campbell, the Duchess of Argyll who made headlines in the sixties during her vicious divorce battle with her husband, the Duke of Argyll. The show, from the team behind A Very English Scandal which dramatised Jeremy Thorpe’s affair, takes a look at her adventurous sex life which led to one of the most salacious divorce cases in British history.

The couple’s bitter and acrimonious divorce case was dominated by a series of nude Polaroids which the duke produced as evidence. They depicted the Duchess performing a sexual act on an unidentified man – who was only seen from the neck down. Speculation ran wild as to who the headless man could be. The shortlist ranged from members of the Royal Family to actors and Cabinet Ministers. Despite being “slut-shamed” by the press, the Duchess refused to identify her lover. The case highlighted tense relationships between Fleet Street and the Establishment, as well as the blurry line between sex and politics.

Ian Argyll

The 11th Duke of Argyll, whose scandalous marriages and divorces made headlines around the world, has died at age 69. He had fought for his family’s land and opened Inveraray Castle to tourists, but the money-hungry duke never found his pot of gold.

In a country obsessed with gossip, British scandals have the power to bring down governments and overthrow the rich. Some involve sex, others money and some are about power.

One of Britain’s biggest scandals of the 1960s featured Margaret Sweeny, glamorous beauty and heir to the Argyll title. She and her husband’s private dalliances, forgery, secret recording, bribery, violence, drug taking and explicit polaroid pictures dominated the front pages in a case that became known as ‘Argyll vs Argyll.’ A new three part BBC drama starring Claire Foy and Paul Bettany dramatizes the case in a series titled A Very British Scandal. The writer, Sarah Phelps, used transcripts from the trial to help inform her script.

Margaret Argyll

At the time of the Argyll scandal, there were tense relationships between Fleet Street and the Establishment – and between sex and politics. Rather like the Profumo case, the Argyll affair shed light on sexual morality and it was considered that the Duchess had been promiscuous and had a ‘headless lover’. She was filmed naked in a compromising position with a man who was never named and speculation ran rife about his identity. He was thought to be either American actor Douglas Fairbanks or Duncan Sandys, the minister of defence.

She was slut-shamed and had her private correspondence leaked to the tabloid press. Eventually she was evicted from her home and died penniless in a nursing home in 1993. The BBC’s new three-part drama, A Very British Scandal, should restore her reputation and help the public to understand that she was more than a victim. With new research and personal transcripts, Lyndsy Spence reveals the truth behind this fragile and damaged woman and also reveals the most likely identity of the headless man – he was Texan millionaire Joe Thomas.

Argyll v Argyll

A Very British Scandal, a three-part miniseries starring The Crown actress Claire Foy and Paul Bettany, dramatizes one of Britain’s most notorious divorce cases. The case centered on Margaret Campbell, Duchess of Argyll, whose marriage to Ian Campbell, 11th Duke of Argyll, led to a scandal that exploded in 1960s Britain.

Margaret, the daughter of a self-made Scottish millionaire, was a celebrity in her own right. From her debutante days to the end of her marriage, her life was front-page news and she was known for her partying.

When her husband, the duke, filed for divorce, he alleged she slept with 88 men. His proof included stolen diaries that supposedly revealed her affairs and explicit Polaroid pictures of her naked except for her signature string of pearls with a headless man. It was the first instance of revenge porn and it laid bare her private life. The court case dragged on for years and became a symbol of misogyny in Britain.

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  • October 12, 2023

Cutting-edge cancer research and global platform for oncology discussions and engagement.

The British Journal of Cancer (BJC)

BJC is committed to publishing cutting edge discovery, translational and clinical cancer research across the broad spectrum of oncology. With its long tradition and close links with CRUK, the journal provides a global platform to disseminate important research in cancer.

This journal accepts original research articles and reviews, ranging from epidemiology, carcinogenesis and biology through to state of the art cellular and molecular approaches. Submissions should be of high scientific/clinical significance.

General oncology

The British Journal of Cancer (BJC) is committed to publishing cutting edge discovery, translational and clinical cancer research. It provides a global platform for key discussions and engagement in the broad area of oncology and offers its readership high impact research across six subject categories including clinical studies, translational therapeutics, molecular diagnostics, genetics and genomics and epidemiology.

BJC is a bimonthly scientific journal with articles spanning the full spectrum of preclinical and clinical cancer research, investigation, treatment and care. It publishes original research, reviews, case reports, editorials and correspondence. It prioritises papers that make a significant contribution to the understanding of the cause and progression of cancer as well as improving patient outcomes. It is published in association with Cancer Research UK, a registered charity in the United Kingdom.

Cancer epidemiology

Cancer epidemiology is the study of the pattern, distribution and causes of cancer. This field includes the analysis of data from studies examining incidence, prevalence and mortality, and can be studied at the global or local level. It is also possible to examine temporal trends in these measures, or differences in them between different regions or groups of people.

The majority of cancers are caused by lifestyle factors, such as tobacco use, poor diet and insufficient physical activity, and chronic infections such as Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B and C viruses. Several of these are preventable by changing lifestyles and implementing screening programmes.

Cancer research is critical to our understanding of the cause of cancer and determining how best to reduce its burden. Research in the BJC covers a broad range of topics including cancer etiology, diagnosis, survival and disparities.

Cancer immunology

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the body’s natural immune system to fight cancer. It has seen unprecedented success in recent years, and was named Science’s “Scientific Breakthrough of the Year.” It involves boosting the immune system’s ability to detect and destroy cancer cells.

The idea of using the body’s own immune system to treat neoplastic diseases first emerged in the nineteenth century. Wilhelm Busch and Friedrich Fehleisen showed that erysipelas, an infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes, could result in spontaneous regression of tumours2.

Immunotherapy research has made great headway in the past decade due to discoveries on how to target neoantigens and T cell anergy. These discoveries are being translated into clinical applications, including cellular immunotherapy, oncolytic viruses and checkpoint blockade.

Cancer genetics

The genes in our cells are responsible for regulating how our bodies grow and develop. Cancer genetics is the study of mutations in these genes that help cancers form, grow and spread. These genetic changes, or variants, can be inherited from our parents or acquired by chance events during cell division.

Some inherited gene faults can cause cancer, but most cancers develop because of many other factors as well. Researchers are trying to find out more about these other factors so that we can do more to prevent cancers. They also want to know whether genetic tests for some cancers are useful in predicting how likely someone is to get the disease. The British journal of cancer publishes articles on these topics. It also has a rapid format for publishing cancer variant reports that have compelling clinical case information.

Clinical oncology

Clinical oncologists care for patients with cancer, and treat them using chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They work with other specialists and nurses in the field. They may also help patients deal with psychological issues associated with their diagnosis and treatment.

They diagnose malignancies by taking detailed medical histories and performing physical examinations. They may use X-rays, CT scanning, MRI scanning and ultrasound to localise tumours and guide biopsy. They may also use radiopharmaceuticals – such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) – to identify areas of abnormal cell activity.

They treat cancer patients in hospitals and day care wards, and carry out clinics to assess new and follow-up patients. They are responsible for prescribing and organising patient treatment, which is often a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

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  • October 12, 2023

Cross-Border Connections: The Hidden Gem of 0 Avenue and Peace Arch Park in British Columbia

0 Avenue and Peace Arch Park in British Columbia

ALDERGROVE — Almost hidden in the homes and street grid of Surrey, British Columbia is a stretch of border road known as 0 Avenue. It runs parallel to the Canada-United States border and features microwave towers and a small park.

It’s a place where families meet, hug and even share a meal across the international border. And, even though Covid-19 has closed many land crossings, this one remains open for now.

Boundary Crossing

The United States Border Patrol is constructing a fence on the international border near Aldergrove. The fence will run from Boundary Road on the US side to Zero Avenue in Canada. The border is already fenced for about 1.5 miles along the Pacific Highway and another mile along the Lynden-Aldergrove border crossing. The fence will then run parallel to 0 Avenue for several more miles. It’s not clear whether the fence has anything to do with COVID-19 or other health concerns, but it could be used as a deterrent for drug smuggling and asylum seekers trying to cross illegally.

A small ditch along 0 Avenue has become a meeting place for American and Canadian families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Families gather to visit, take pictures, and feel connected across the border. Some couples even get married here. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police are stationed at the park and ask that families keep their distance from each other.

Microwave Towers

These ominous structures were once part of AT&T’s Long Lines microwave radio-relay network, which carried telephone calls and television signals coast to coast before fiber optic networks came into play. They were also hardened sites in case of a nuclear attack.

Microwave transmission does not use wires, but relies on direct line of sight between transmitter and receiver. This means that the towers are usually about 30 miles apart, though they were often farther when built in the ’50s and ’60s. You can find the towers, which are still intact with antennas pointing in different directions (to avoid signal overlap), by hunting through old maps or a Google Earth map created by a microwave-relay aficionado.

Microwave towers are still used today in remote areas for high speed trading or as backup systems to fiber when it is impractical to run a continuous wire through adverse terrain. You might even see a microwave relay tower in your neighborhood if you live in an area that has a large amount of business-to-business traffic that requires higher speeds than what fiber can provide.

Peace Arch Park

While there are a lot of great spots along the US-Canada border for road trips, few come close to the Peace Arch Park. This beautiful landmark was built to commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Ghent and the Rush-Bagot Agreement, which established a peaceful unguarded border between the United States and Canada. The 67-foot arch, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is a reminder of what can happen when people of different countries work together.

The Canadian side of the park closed in June because of COVID-19 restrictions, but the American side remained open until Oct. 1. The American park is a Washington state park, while the Canadian park is owned by the Semiahmoo First Nation and accessed via Beach Road.

While the park is small, it packs a big punch in terms of international relations. At a time when borders are hardening politically but remaining physically porous, the Peace Arch Park is a symbol of cross-border connections.

Border Fence

A cable fence has begun to go up along a section of the international border between Canada and the United States. The American Border Patrol’s Blaine sector is overseeing the project, which appears to have nothing to do with COVID, but instead focuses on what acting chief patrol agent Tony Holladay calls bi-national safety concerns for this particular vulnerable area of the border.

The section of the border in question runs from Boundary Road north of Lynden to Zero Avenue south of Langley City. It’s a stretch of the border that has long been popular for families with loved ones in each country who can’t cross over due to the travel bans.

Usually, structures aren’t allowed within 10 feet of the border on either side. But this is a special situation, and a fence is a lot easier to see than the thorny brambles that have grown in some places to block the border. The Peace Arch Park sits right on the border, and there’s a paved pedestrian entrance into it from the Canadian side.

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